Teaching the Crucible in the Age of Trump

Dear College Professor, I Taught The Crucible in the Age of Trump.

“NO COLLUSION . . . A TOTAL WITCHHUNT!” – Donald J. Trump, Washington DC, 2018.
I don’t truck with no Devil!” – Tituba, Salem, 1692. The Crucible by Arthur Miller.

Dear College Professor,

I’m teaching Arthur Miller’s The Crucible in my college preparatory high school classroom.

Miller’s play, which, just to remind you, uses the Salem Witch trials as an allegory for the hysteria and authoritarianism of the 1950’s Red Scare bears striking parallels to the multiple federal investigations of our 45th President of the United States – many of these invoked by the President himself and his repeated use or (misuse) of the term “Witch Hunt.”

I first began thinking about how factions within American society had appropriated and altered the meaning Miller’s interrogation of “Witch Hunts” in 2017 when Donald Trump and his associates began adapting the term to discredit those who asked questions about Trump – particularly questions about his relationship with Russia.

Back then, I was beginning my blog Love in the House of the Seven Gables, which studies and reiterates aspects of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s 1851 novel The House of the Seven Gables. Because Hawthorne set his novel against the backdrop of the Salem Witch Trials, connections between Hawthorne’s novel and contemporary politics came naturally to me.

Since 2017, the term has become only more prevalent. At times our culture uses it in ways similar to its Miller’s original meaning, such as when immigrants and Muslims are demonized. At other times, the phrase “Witch Hunt” is used in what I can only consider a “Trumpian” sense – because Trump appears to have originated this new use of the term – where instead of being applied to highlight persecution of marginalized peoples by those in positions of power, term is used to by the powerful to disavow any investigation into their actions. This is the sense of the term as used by those who defended now Supreme Court Justice Brett Kavanaugh against allegations of violence against women during his confirmation hearings. For a concise history of how the term “Witch Hunt,” has changed in American society, I recommend Erin Cassesse’s Vox article.

Even with such media high exposure to the term “Witch Hunt,” I wondered what connections my students could make between the play and contemporary politics. I wanted to help them see how dramatically a play that Miller wrote in 1953, set in 1692, could be strikingly relevant to 2019. I wanted to help them see how an American play first performed before most of their parents were born could still be relevant to their 21st-century world.

How many of them, I wondered, were already aware of the obvious parallels between Miller’s play and our own political crises? How many, while reading, could connect the dots. And among those who couldn’t, could I help them see it? Surely, I thought, no one could be sitting in a college prep classroom in the Age of Trump without having heard the term “Witch Hunt.” Or depending where they’d heard the term,  “WITCH HUNT!!!” Would they understand that “This is Not A Witch Hunt”?

Well College Professor, I was in for a surprise. You might be, too.  

Even though I’m only a high school teacher, I’m telling you this because my students will soon be your students, either literally or figuratively. As I’ve mentioned before, I used to teach college writing and literature. Because I have served as a university instructor, I can anticipate your expectations. Yet as a high school teacher, I have first-hand knowledge of how your incoming students view and interact with the world.  

I hope that my insights will aid you as you encourage your own students to critically interrogate connections between American literature and contemporary American culture. As blog posts on this very teaching and American literature website, like Caitlin Kelly’s Teaching Charlotte Temple after #MeToo and Randi Taglen’s Teaching Failure: Aunt Phillis’s Cabin suggest, you are interested in doing this.

The Crucible and This Trumpian Moment

FireShot Capture 018 - Cable Spins Mueller Report In Clashin_ - https___www.huffpost.com_entry_mueHannity dropping the mic on a particularly Monty Burns-like Robert Mueller. Youtube.

I began teaching the play the week of March 25th, 2019, which was by coincidence the week after Robert Mueller delivered his report of the Trump-Russia investigation to Attorney General William Barr. Over the weekend, the term “Witch Hunt,” had been broadcast over cable news and social media perhaps more than ever.  As soon as the Mueller Report was released, Sean Hannity, one of Fox News’ highest rating pundits, had declared, “The Witch Hunt is Over!” Immediately thereafter, with no hint irony, Hannity urged the federal government to investigate Ukraine’s support of Hillary Clinton during the 2016 election. It kind of seemed like Hannity does not understand the lessons of the Crucible. Would my students? Over the past couple of weeks, what I expected to be a challenge in helping students develop critical thinking skills has turned out to be a problem of information.

In this post, I want to tell you what I found out, how I’m trying to remedy and adapt. I’ll tell you about a short research project I assigned my students as part of my adaptation. In about a week, when I’ve had a chance to review the projects, I’ll tell you how it turns out.  

5494470688_9c012ef54b_zMap Puzzle via Ken Hawkins

A Conundrum Discovered

From previous experience with these students, I knew that we could move easily between analysis of The Crucible and the connections that Arthur Miller established between the Salem Witch Trials and the Red Scare in his 1996 article “Why I Wrote The Crucible.” After all, we’ve been working to make connections between different texts, as well as between texts and real life, over the course of this school year.

I wondered, though, how easily could we move between the themes of the play and discussions around contemporary political discourse? And if it wasn’t easy, how could I teach the critical thinking necessary to analyze the connections between the language of the play and similar phraseology in contemporary politics?

I tried to make this assessment on Day 1 of our study of text through an all-class discussion. Students had read only our textbook’s introduction to the play (which gives historical context of the Salem Witch Trials, and literary context for the McCarthy Hearings), the author’s Note on Historical Accuracy, and the Overture to Act I. These readings provided the exposition necessary for students to see how Miller set his play during the Salem Witch Trials as an allegory to analyze how mass-hysteria, coupled with political leaders interested more in authority and personal interest than justice, had ravaged 1950’s society and persecuted the innocent.

The class proved capable of following along with Miller’s connections. I then asked what I thought would be a simple question: “Has anyone heard the term ‘Witch Hunt’ discussed in relation to current events in American society?” Met with silence, I rephrased the question: “Where have you heard this term applied in contemporary politics or news?” Again, silence.

Finally, one student (who happened to Hispanic) raised her hand. “OK,” she said, “I’ll just say it. This reminds me of the ICE raids on immigrant communities.” This comment offered a parallel that a few others picked up on. We then discussed parallels between the mass hysteria describes in his Overture to ACT I and the fears held by sectors of American society who believe that immigrants – especially from the Middle East or Central America, are entering our society with the intent to harm us (and now I’ll just say it, white people).

In the next class, one student asked amid the uncomfortable silence. “Do we have to talk about this, because isn’t this politics?” This student unintentionally let me know that she was quite familiar with current events.  I replied that “it is, and it isn’t. It’s political, but Miller’s play is political. And our goal in this discussion is not to engage in a political debate, but to analyze how the term “Witch Hunt” is being used in contemporary society.” Still, students were very, very quiet.

Simple Questions

When you are a teacher, it can be hard to sense whether students really don’t know what you’re talking about, or they just don’t want to acknowledge that they know what you are talking about. To find out, I created an anonymous survey for my remaining class sections.

My first few questions that came up with expected results. I learned that only 1% of my students had previously read The Crucible, or seen a movie version. Seventy percent had studied the McCarthy Hearings and the Red Scare a couple of weeks ago in their U.S. History class. This second result explained why our discussions of Miller’s use of the Salem Witch Trials to set his allegory of the McCarthy hearings had gone pretty smoothly.

Responses to my next few questions just as clearly explained why we were not able to generate any discussion of 21st-century use of the term “Witch Hunt.” My questions and my students’ response are detailed below.

Crucible Survey 3

So roughly 65% of students had indeed heard the term “Witch Hunt” in contemporary news, an additional 20% had at least some idea what we were talking about. As students sometimes do, my students knew what I was talking about, but didn’t feel like talking about it in class. But why?

Their answers to my next two questions did not answer this question directly but enabled me to make what are probably reliable inferences.

Crucible Survey 1

Crucible Survey 2

I asked these last two questions because I wanted to get a sense of how much disagreement, and degree of disagreement, exists in my classroom.

Contrary to popular belief, young people in high school and college are not disconnected from politics. You may disagree with me. I know this statement contradicts adult folklore and the stereotype of students scrolling up and down their phones all day. Young people are exposed to information about contemporary politics daily.

Information is not the problem. The problem is the kind of information.

I know what you’re thinking. What?

“What”? Giphy.

Bear with me a moment. And forgive me for not frequently citing sources. You will find that the hypothesis that follows is based on common knowledge.

Young people today – the age of my high school students and your college students- consume less print and radio news than their parents. And though their parents watch a lot of cable news, young people get most of their news through social media. This was my personal experience based on casual conversations with students when I taught college. It is my experience based on conversations with my current students. And my survey results confirm it.

The social media increase our own innate tendencies toward confirmation bias by bombarding us with advertisements based on demographics and “likes” and clicks. If Facebook knows that you are 17 years old, for example, it will show you advertisements for vape products because that is the target market that the vape giant Juul has told Facebook it wants.

Also based on demographics and internet behavior, Facebook (and the Twitter, and the Instagram, and the Snapchat, and other things that you and I don’t even know about) will also recommend that we follow accounts run by political advocacy organizations and by companies who make their living by promulgating totally fake news. These advocacy organizations and fake news sources produce biased, oversimplified, and incendiary information.

Based on whom I’m friends with, how old I am, where I live, and my behavior on social media (or my gmails or anything and everything) the social medias will encourage me to click and follow accounts that it thinks will confirm my political views – through “fake” news or alternative facts or news based on highly partisan conclusions.

The same can be said of our cable news sources – especially the place where most of my students hear political information on television – Fox News.

Don’t get mad at me. I know, from yet more personal experience trying to have conversations with people who watch only Fox News, that people get mad when you question the veracity of that network. But just remember, this is the network that told viewers Barack Obama is a Muslim and is even now telling its viewers that the Mueller report “totally exonerates” Donald Trump from any wrongdoing – even when this is exactly the opposite of what even AG Barr, quoting Mueller’s report, just said.

My students do not seek out Fox News as their primary news source, but it’s what 50% of their parents are watching. I thought this is because I taught in a predominantly red state. But I’ll tell you, reader, I did a little research. And the numbers produced in my survey are pretty close to the national average. Fox News has more than half the market share among Cable News viewers, with CNN following at 35% and MSNBC at 10%. And even among those not getting their TV news from Fox News, those who watch CNN and MSNBC are regularly informed of Fox’s most egregious distortions. 

You and I are old enough to remember when there was no Fox, no MSNBC. Only network news and print sources. For my students, Fox has been on the TV in their parents’ homes since they were born. And targeted social media ads have populated their screens since they were teenagers. For them, all of this is normal. I must be beginning to sound very old to you. Let’s move on.

In short, the “news” we find on social media, where 60% of my students indicate they receive most of their news, massively distorts information – or deliberately delivers us disinformation. And television, when it does give us true information, does not encourage us to understand differing points of view. Combined, our television and social media often encourage us to regard those who do not share our political views as less intelligent, less moral, less human.

22459787_b3499d9fc1_z

What other people look like you like when you get too much news from social media. “Werewolf Me” via Paul Huber.

A Remedy Considered

Based on their survey responses and my initial attempts at classroom conversations about contemporary use of the term “WITCH HUNT!,” I decided that if we were going to analyze the terms’ current use in relation to Miller’s allegory of the Witch Hunt, we were going to have to do it on the “down low,” as the cool kids call it these days.

So I reconceived the conversations that I had imagined us having as a class into a small group assignment. As we discussed the text The Crucible in class, students would keep track of key pieces of information in Miller’s Salem Witch Trials. I created a graphic organizer that prompted students to identify accusers, accused, of what the accused were accused, and the types of evidence. I also asked them to think about whether the evidence is based on fact, fear, or personal grievances.

In other words, they would ask “is this a Witch Hunt”? Then, they’d research corresponding information about the McCarthy trials and ask the same questions. So far, we’re just talking about The Crucible. So everybody should be safe.

Next, the group will select a 21st-century issue and ask the same questions.

I’m asking students to be as specific as possible so that they have concrete evidence that they can examine.

This is where things may get dicey. There may be controversy – but at this point, the students just need to gather what they deem to be reliable evidence together. I’m hoping this may allow them to discuss a controversial 21st-century issue, even the issue that looms most prominently in my mind – the Russia investigation of the 45th President of the United States. But to require them to examine this issue doesn’t feel right for a number of reasons.

Finally, based on their group research, students will write a short essay that answers the question – are the accusations real, or are they fake – or “Is it a Witch Hunt?” Answering this question individually will permit members of the group to come to different conclusions if and when they disagree on how to assess the evidence.

And once I’ve had time to read and digest my students’ work, I’ll get back to you with a follow-up letter, College Professor. I’ll let you know what happened. Because during the roughly year and a half that will pass before my students become your students, my students will mature a lot. Their brains will grow. But they’ll still be the same people, with hopefully more developed critical thinking skills but quite possibly a very similar worldview to the one they have now. I want to help you know what to expect in case you ever try to teach anything you find politically relevant to the present day. Because I’m here to help.

As is always the case when we try something new as teachers, I don’t know what’s going to happen. Do you know what’s going to happen? Do you have any advice? If so, let me know in the comments

Thanks for listening to me for so long. I’ll see you later.

Clay Zuba is an English Teacher at Xavier College Preparatory High School in Phoenix, Arizona, where he teaches American Literature and writing. In 2016, he was awarded a Ph.D. in American literature at the University of Delaware. His acclaimed blog love7g.com about Nathaniel Hawthorne is a precursor to his upcoming historical novel Love in the House of the Seven Gables.

Advertisements

Making Room for BIG Books

Despite what some students might think, a semester is really short!

All instructors know the feeling of wanting to cover more material than a semester can actually hold. As a result, perhaps especially in survey or genre courses potentially covering centuries of literature, we often opt to teach shorter-length works or excerpts from longer works. While this gives us the satisfaction of “covering more ground” and the assurance that students will (hopefully) complete assigned readings, doesn’t a BIG part of literary study involve reading BIG books?

While I don’t have a rigid definition in mind of what constitutes “big” or “long,” I generally mean works, usually novels, of 400+ pages.  I know people have different educational experiences, but when I reflect on both my high school and college careers, I realize I didn’t read many “big” or “long” works at all. It wasn’t until graduate school that I was regularly assigned long novels in my classes.

Throughout college, I found that most of my long novel reading was non-assigned. If my instructors mentioned important canonical works in class, I often made a point to find them in the library and read them during my free time or during winter/summer breaks. BIG BOOKs

There are certainly still self-motivated students who read a lot on their own time, but they’re not necessarily reading “big” books. Also, many students, despite the desire to read more, really don’t have the time to do so between taking classes or working.

If experience and training in reading “big” books is essential to the development of English majors, and average English majors can’t fit “big” books in on their own time, then it’s important to make room for “big” books in our courses whenever we can. I try to incorporate at least one long novel into each of my literature classes.

Of course, making room for a 400+ page novel is easier said than done, and both instructors and students have their concerns. While I speak on behalf of common instructor concerns below, I interviewed several former students who read “long” novels in my classes to get a better idea of their perspectives (I paraphrase much of their commentary below for the sake of format).

Instructor Concerns about Course Objectives: I have a lot of historical ground to cover, so can I replace several shorter works with one longer work and still convey historical developments? It’s also important for my class to convey stylistic range and authorial diversity, so can I really afford to sacrifice any voices?

My Response: Meeting course objectives is generally non-negotiable. In survey courses or courses where diversity is an essential objective, including a “big” book may not be feasible.  However, I usually only include one long novel per applicable class, so there is still room to include shorter length works and diverse range of voices.

Instructor Concerns about Pacing: How much class time do I need to devote to a long novel? How much reading can I expect students to complete for each class? Will my students even read a long novel through to the end?

Student Concerns about Pacing: How long are we spending with this huge novel? Will I have enough time to read, or will I have to skim? Will the language and style be readable or difficult? Will the subject matter be hard to understand? If we’re only spending two weeks on it, how much of the material will we actually cover during class? Is it worth putting in all the time to read a huge novel if we’re only spending a couple weeks on it?

Response: Several semesters ago, I considered including Moby-Dick in a genre class on the novel. A seasoned colleague told me not to bother. He said, “It’s too long and too old. No one will read it.” I think it’s unfair to assume that students simply won’t complete an assigned work just because it’s too long or too old. We all know that students don’t always complete readings, even when they’re short and contemporary.

Moby Dick

Upon talking to students, I’m most compelled by a frustration they share. Many students are not, despite popular belief, frustrated by a large quantity of reading, but by the disproportional amount of class time devoted to discussing a large quantity of reading. Students are practical about their time, and I can’t blame them. When students invest a lot of time in reading, they want to see a return on that investment by discussing material comprehensively in class. It makes sense that students will invest more in a text that takes up a month of class time rather than a week.  As my students explain, regardless of length, it’s frustrating to read something that goes unaddressed during class.

The ability to complete readings successfully is dependent upon slow pacing, which prevents students from rushing or skimming through a narrative and feeling “mixed up” or “hazy” on points during discussion.  When more class time is devoted to a work, students are not only more likely to finish reading but also to have a stronger comprehension of what they read.

Additionally, the students I interviewed expressed enthusiasm about having extended class time to think “more deeply” about a work, cover “more territory,” and explore “diverse perspectives” during discussion. Even in advanced classes where strong students could reasonably be expected to complete 200-300 pages of reading in a week, it’s unlikely we could do more than scratch the surface of those 300 pages in a week’s worth of discussion.

In matters of pacing, instructors also need to consider the language, style, and density of the material. For example, I usually spend four to five weeks on John Steinbeck’s 600ish page novel East of Eden, but I usually spend six to seven weeks on an older work like James Fenimore Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans, even though it’s about 150ish pages shorter than Steinbeck’s novel.  While students find that Steinbeck’s narrative is written in readable and mostly conversational contemporary English, students find that Cooper’s long-winded language and convoluted writing style slow down the reading pace.

East of Edenlast of the mohicans

Instructor Concerns about Placement: Where should I position a “long” novel on my syllabus? Is it better to start or finish a class with a “long” novel?

Student Concerns about Placement: Will I have to read a “long” novel during the busiest parts of my semester? Will I feel overwhelmed with all the work I have to do?

Response: I have positioned long novels at the beginning (for reasons of historical chronology), middle, and end of courses, and my experiences have been most successful when placing long novels at the end of a semester. I discovered insight as to why through student interview. As I’ve already addressed, reading “big” books isn’t exactly common practice for most students, so seeing a “long” novel assigned in a class can be feel overwhelming and intimidating. Therefore, throwing students into the “deep end” of the “lengthy literature pool” at the start of the semester isn’t ideal.

Students also disclosed a preference for starting with shorter works, not only to build up reading “endurance” and confidence, but also to get comfortable with the dynamics of group discussion in a given class.  Students are usually comfortable with reading practices and class dynamics by mid-semester, but it’s best to wait until after the chaos of midterms to start a long work. Also, students noted that while they are busy at the end of the semester, most exams and papers are due after classes end. Slowly working through a long novel in the final weeks of a semester, therefore, can feel more “therapeutic” than “taxing.”

Instructor Concerns about Value: Will assigning a long novel be worth it? Will my students really gain anything from the experience?

Student Concerns about Value: Will reading a long novel be worth it? Will I really gain anything from the experience?

Response: When I asked students how they felt after completing a long novel, they agreed that the overall experience is rewarding.  One student noted, “I feel accomplished when I finish a long novel; there is some sort of pride rooted in the ability to complete a task that at first seemed daunting and almost overwhelming.” Another student noted, “After finishing a long novel, the initial feeling that follows is relief. Then, accomplishment–I actually completed something!…If a novel is special enough, something about me changes afterward.”

BIG BOOKS 3

A BIG part of making sure a BIG book is a BIG hit is generating enthusiasm about the experience throughout the semester. It’s important for students to think of a long novel at the end of the semester as a “grand finale,” not a “final punishment.” Additionally, it’s important to stress that the group will work through the text slowly and that, as the instructor, you’ll be there to walk them through it all. These kinds of consistent prefatory remarks will help students feel (at least) a little better about a task that for many will be a totally new experience.

Do you teach “big” books? If so, what “big” books do you include in your classes? Where do you position them, and how long do you spend with them? How do your students engage with “big” books?