Reflections on Teaching Style in Short Stories

PALS Note: We are kicking off the new year with a guest post from Larry S. Su, who is a professor of English at the City Colleges of Chicago. Su shares his approach to bringing students’ attention to style in fiction with William Faulkner’s “Barn Burning” as an example.

When discussing a short story, students usually understand the literary elements such as conflicts, characters, setting, point of view, theme, and style. Often style comes last on the list, and when it finally gets its turn for discussion, the class is almost approaching its end, leaving little or almost no time to analyze the author’s use of language, thus leading to students’ neglect or ignorance in this very important aspect of the story. However, style is an integral part of the story. Without a good understanding of it, students’ understanding of the story’s other elements is hampered. In this short essay, I’d like to share some of my experiences in teaching style in short stories.

Style is often described as the author’s characteristic way of using language to create literature. It is the writer’s habitual use of certain rhetorical patterns, including sentence length and complexity, word choice and placement, and punctuation. The definition does not sound complex; however, it is not easy to do an analysis of style in a story. Other than the lack of time as mentioned above, there are three other reasons why style is often under-discussed. The first is students’ lack of interest. To discuss style is not as interesting as discussing the story’s conflicts, characters or themes. It seems that students are always invested more in discovering and debating what happens in the story, how the characters engage in conflicts, and what the story tells them, than in discussing how the author puts words and sentences into best use for thematic and stylistic effects. Second, as native speakers, students often take language for granted. They often do not pay much attention to how literary language is different from the colloquial language. Even if they notice some differences, they often gloss them over. Third and the most important, students do not have the terms or vocabulary to discuss style. The limited knowledge they have about grammar and punctuation is not enough to help them appreciate the author’s literary language and be able to discuss its effectiveness and creativity.

barn-burning

Look at an episode from William Faulkner’s short story “Barn Burning”:

The nights were still cool and they had a fire against it, a rail lifted from a nearly fence and cut into lengths—a small fire, neat, niggard almost, a shrewd fire; such fires were his father’s habit and custom always, even in freezing weather. Older, the boy might have remarked this and wondered why not a big one; why should not a man who had not only seen the waste and extravagance of war, but who had in his blood an inherent voracious prodigality with material not his own, have burned everything in sight? Then he might have gone a step farther and thought that that was the reason: that niggard blaze was the living fruit of the nights passed during those four years in the woods hiding from all men, blue and gray, with his strings of horses (captured horses, he called them). And older still, he might have divined the true reason: that the element of fire spoke to some deep mainspring of his father’s being, as the element of steel or powder spoke to other men, as the one weapon for the preservation of integrity, else breath were not worth the breathing, and hence to be regarded with respect and used with discretion. (239)

Here is how I draw students’ attention to the passage’s stylistic features: This passage has both the boy’s observations and reflections. While the observations are from the boy’s perspective, the reflections are from the point of view of a much older Sartoris who is sophisticated enough years later to interpret his father’s proclivity for fire. The majority of the passage is on the older Sartoris’s meditation on his father’s addiction to burning other people’s properties. To accommodate such a perception, the words are formal and in places abstract and philosophical. For example, the fire is described as “neat,” “niggard,” and “shrewd”; the fires are his father’s “habit and custom always”; in his father’s blood there is an “inherent voracious prodigality with material not his own”; the fire is the “living fruit of nights” to help his father to pass the four years of the Civil War; the fire speaks to “some deep mainspring of his father’s being…the one weapon for the preservation of integrity.” Such words, chosen with precision, aim to explain why fire is important to his father’s being and how he develops that character in his life. In other words, the fire is in his genes. He lives by it and will perish by it. Notice the elevated status of words like “inherent voracious prodigality,” “divined,” “being,” and “integrity” and how they help to capture his philosophy of life and his practice of it.

Syntactically, the sentences are long and complex with many clauses and phrases as modifiers, showing again Faulkner’s effort to use as accurate words and appropriate syntax as possible to reveal the father to readers. The passage uses three subjunctive clauses in a row: “The boy might have remarked,” “he might have gone a step farther,” and “he might have divined the real reason” to show discrepancy between Sartoris’s current status of mind and his future mental capability. Namely, as it stands now, Sartoris, young as he is, is not able to understand his father’s behavior, but when he is an adult, he will be able to make the connections and understand his father’s real motive for burning barns. This cluster of subjunctives shows in gradation Sartoris’s growth of intelligence and his final understanding of his father. Through his older and mature eyes, the readers can also gain understanding of his father’s complexity. This is Faulkner’s masterful use of style in action. Commenting on the mixed consciousness of the two narrators, James Ferguson writes, “The tensions between the awareness of the boy and the information supplied by the authorial voice undergird and emphasize the conflicts between youth and age, innocence and sophistication, intuition and abstraction, decency and corruption, all of which lie at the core of the work” (96). Thus the two perceptions and styles complement and enrich each other, helping readers to gain a deep insight into his father’s psyche.

Faulkner also uses several figures of speech in the passage. For example, he personifies the fire as “neat, niggard, and shrewd,” a characteristic similar to that of his father who, before he commits his last burning, is “still in the hat and coat, at once formal and burlesque as though dressed carefully for some shabby and ceremonial violence” (249). Faulkner also uses several similes and metaphors to compare Abner’s desire for burning as “the living fruit of nights…the deep mainspring of his father’s being…as the element of steel and powder…as the one weapon for the preservation of integrity.” Such similes and metaphors make specific and understandable the abstract qualities of Abner. The images of living fruit, mainspring, steel, powder and weapon get deep into his father’s psyche: His strength, pride, resilience, and power. The passage as a whole stands out as a testimony of not only Abner’s multidimensional and complex personality but also Faulkner’s masterful command of style to bring Abner vividly to readers.

The detailed analyses I outlined above should be practiced in the beginning weeks of the semester so that students know how to conduct a stylistic analysis. Here I offer five suggestions:

First, read it aloud: Short stories are written not just to be read silently; they should also be read aloud so that readers can better appreciate the author’s use of syntax, rhythm, rhyme, tone, and irony.

Second, instructor-led discussion is very important: As has been mentioned before, students often lack experience and practice in discussing style of a particular story; therefore, it is important for the instructor to demonstrate by many examples how to conduct a stylistic analysis of a short story, how to select certain sections of the story for a close analysis of its diction, syntax, and use of the figures of speech. Such discussion and practice should be conducted daily in the discussion of the story. Or at least the instructor should lead students 3-4 times so that they eventually know the steps and can do the analysis themselves.

Third, analyze the style of a particular work: Choose a story that you particularly like and analyze its choice of words, its use of sentences—length, variety, complexity, simple, compound, complex — and the creative use of language such as simile, metaphor, personification, symbol, etc. Discuss how style is an integral part of the story and helps readers understand the story as a whole. Such exercises seem to take students away from the heated discussions on the conflicts, characters, and themes; students might show lack of interest in the beginning, but they really call students’ attention to the author’s style, and once they understand its importance and master the skills to do stylistic analysis, they actually enjoy it.

Fourth, assign compare and contrast exercises on style. Choose two writers that are similar or different in style. Stand them side by side and make a chart of their similarities and/or differences in word choice, syntax, and creative use of language. Suggested writers of similar writing styles can include Anton Chekhov, Sherwood Anderson, Ernest Hemingway, or Carver; writers who focus on the exploration of characters’ inner worlds can include Nathaniel Hawthorne, Willa Cather, and Faulkner. Writers who push language to its limits and exploit its liberty and creativity can include Saul Bellow and Ralph Ellison. Writers with contrasting styles can include Faulkner and Hemingway.

Fifth, use creative writing exercises to practice style: Either imitate the style of a particular writer or design assignments that give students opportunities to practice style. For instance, “Barn Burning” is mostly told from Sartoris’s point of view. How about narrating it from the father’s point of view? What kind of sensibility, diction, syntax, or tone should be used? The same can be done with “A Small, Good Thing.” What if it is told from a third person omniscient point of view when the narrator is given the privilege to get into the emotions of the couple and is able to describe in explicit details their devastation and loss? Or design a creative writing assignment to ask students to describe a college campus as seen through the eyes of three new campus community members from different groups. Use words and sentences that are appropriate to their educational levels and range of life experiences.

Contributor Bio:
photo-4Larry S. Su, PhD, is professor of English at the City Colleges of Chicago teaching American literature and composition. The literature courses he has taught include Survey of American Literature, Appreciation of Novels in English, Early 20th Century American Literature, Contemporary American Literature, and Introduction to Literature. He has published seven academic articles, two book reviews, and over a dozen essays.

Literature is Political: Teaching Charles Chesnutt’s The Marrow of Tradition, Critical Patriotism, and Media Literacy

Note: This week at PALS, we are responding to Ben Railton’s new book, History and Hope in American Literature: Models of Critical Patriotism. Between PALS’s regular contributors, we have taught nearly all of the texts addressed in Railton’s book, but we will only focus on a few in posts by PALS’s co-editors Shelli Homer (part 1) and Brianne Jaquette (part 2 and part 3) .  First up is Homer with a look at Charles Chesnutt’s The Marrow of Tradition.

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Captain America: Truth (comicbook)

Last semester in an intermediate composition course, I had students spend the semester researching and writing about American Wars. Throughout the semester, they compared posters from WWI and WWII with pamphlets from the 1960s (Vietnam, Civil Rights, Women’s Lib), reflected on narratives created from Civil War diaries and letters, assessed trends the representation of 9/11 in print media both foreign and domestic, and finally, analyzed the representation of war in a Hollywood film of their choosing.

The first day of class, I wrote the word patriotism on the board and had students do some free writing connected to the word. Students’ thoughts went in a lot of directions, but mainly they were anxious about offending others as they struggled with a desire to be critical of it and to be “good Americans” because somehow those two things do not mesh. More importantly, they all knew someone in the military and wanted to be respectful of that as well. We followed the free writing with a short article that challenged the idea of patriotism by questioning whether it was really any different from nationalism which the scholar described as dangerous. We critiqued the article and some of the writer’s choices as we moved into a discussion of the purpose of patriotism and the many ways it could be defined. Students wanted permission to think critically about their relationship with patriotism; they wanted to be critical patriots without being labeled un-American. All of them had their own defining moments that had already fundamentally challenged their blind childhood patriotism. I went to some very difficult places with students, but everyone was respectful so we came out the other side virtually unscathed with heightened critical thinking skills for encountering manifestations of patriotism.

I open with this anecdote because a statement I have heard several times from colleagues has gone something like, “Why does everyone think we have to addressister-outsiderpolitical topics in our classes? I just enjoy the literature with my students and teach them to appreciate the formal elements, like style and form.” There was a time when my response to this was in the vein of “to each their own, I guess.” But those responses have never fully worked for me. The idea that focusing on style and form will spare us a political conversation is naïve. Choices about form are political. Choices about style are political. Choices about word use are political. Can those elements be successfully taught while avoiding any sort of political discussion in the classroom? I would like to pause and point us all to Audre Lorde’s essay “The Master’s Tools will Never Dismantle the Master’s House.” Maybe we should just re-read all of Sister Outsider.

I completely understand the anxiety about how to manage politically charged conversations and a fear of students yelling at one another or us. While I sympathize with teaching anxieties 100%—I’m a teacher. It’s hard. I get it.—I don’t support avoiding it because it is challenging for us as well as our students. There is a lot of scholarship out there to help us figure out how to approach the literature through various cultural lenses, more and more of it involving political readings. Ben Railton’s new book, History and Hope in American Literature: Models of Critical Patriotism, provides us with ways to rethink how and why literature is especially productive for helping “audiences not only better remember and understand our histories, but also genuinely connect to and empathize with them.” His book engages with political contexts and challenges the desire to forget or ignore dark parts of American history that have not been adequately or collectively addressed. These “dark parts” make for some very tough classroom conversations, but also for some amazing learning opportunities.

One of the darkest parts of American history, both past and present is race. I have also had colleagues ask the loaded questions, “Why do I have to learn and teach about African American culture and people to teach the literature? Why can’t we just appreciate Toni Morrison’s beautiful prose?” Well, because those questions are the definition of cultural appropriation, taking a piece of the culture while disregarding the lived experience of those who created it and the cultural context from which it came. We definitely don’t need to be reinforcing cultural appropriation in our classrooms. And, again, can a real appreciation of the literature be taught while pretending it was created in a vacuum? Literature challenges the dominant historical narratives that are accepted and live in citizens’ imaginations. That challenge is, also, political. The remainder of this post is about teaching critical patriotism through narratives of historical revision and historical recovery with Chesnutt’s The Marrow of Tradition as the example.

TEACHING THE MARROW OF TRADITION

The Course

Teaching with attention to political elements and providing historical contexts is second nature to me. A few semesters ago, I taught a Writing about Literature course titled “African American and Caribbean Narratives of Historical Revision and Historical Recovery.” We read four pieces of literature in the course: M. NourbeSe Philip’s Zong! (2008), Thylias Moss’s Slave Moth (2004), Charles Chesnutt’s The Marrow of Tradition (1901), and Julia Alvarez’s In the Time of Butterflies (1994)—if I were to teach this course as strictly African American or Afro-Caribbean, instead of open to Caribbean texts at large, I could replace Alvarez’s novel with Tayari Jones’s Leaving Atlanta (2002) or Edwidge Danticat’s The Farming of Bones (1998), amongst countless others, and have a similar progression to the course. All of the texts could be places in the category of historical narratives. I also structured the course to move through the texts according to the temporal setting of the narrative, not the publication date.

By the time we got to Chesnutt, we had looked at the history and geography of the middle passage with Philip’s poetry collection and read William Wells Brown’s slave narrative with Moss’s neo-slave narrative. Despite students’ skewed and incomplete education about the institution of slavery in the Americas, they were able to ground themselves in past knowledge to engage with the first two authors. The big piece of US history that semester after semester I find students have no conceptualization of is what happened between the Civil War and Civil Rights. Most white students and some students of color have never heard the term Jim Crow. Thus, students struggle to conceptualize The Marrow of Tradition as a historical novel because the events Chesnutt depicts, from minstrelsy to the coup d’etat, don’t fit in their version of America.

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The 1898 burning of the African American newspaper office in Wilmington, NC.

There are so many themes connected to both race in America and the representation and treatment of race in American literature. We touched on several of those throughout the novel, based on students’ interests and confusion. Jim Crow was one of my main focuses, in addition to the culminating event of the novel: the coup d’etat that was nearly erased from US history. To help students better understand Jim Crow, I read students some of the different Jim Crow laws and used an interactive map to show students that 1) Jim Crow laws were about much more than segregation and 2) it existed throughout the US, not just in the South.

The Newspaper Assignment

Since the main focus of the course was historical gaps and misrepresentations, with this novel, as with the other texts of the course, I had students explore the history behind Chesnutt’s historical setting. As Melissa Range has previously discussed, the use of newspaper databases can be a quite fruitful approach to the teaching of literature and historical contexts, among other things. The assignment was fairly simple. A week into the novel, I asked students to choose an early newspaper database or online resource for 19th century news articles and find an article about the events depicted in The Marrow of Tradition. Students had to use terms like, race riot, and search the specific year I gave them, but they found short articles across the United States about the event. Once the students found an article they wanted to work with, they had to analyze it both visually—this takes into consideration the layout of the page, as many of them got to see their chosen article scanned in on its full newspaper page—and for the rhetoric used in recounting the events. This was a short one page write up.

Sharing and Newspapers/Media Literacy

Students brought both their one page write up and a print out of their newspaper article to class. I had them get into small group of 3 or 4 and share/compare their findings. They then reported back to the class the observations they made as a group. Some students discovered one news article had been reprinted in several newspapers. Other students were interested in the slight shifts in word choice between newspapers. One of the big observations was that most all of the newspaper articles were very short with hardly any information. Students were a bit suspicious of how vague the articles were. This lead into a discussion of the currently popular concept of media literacy. Since I gave them a very specific assignment and we were already in the reconstructing history mode, they were in a more critical mindset. They were frustrated that there wasn’t more information. They were trying to understand a historical event without a historical account. We had not yet made it to the end of the novel, so they also did not have Chesnutt’s account. They did have much of Chesnutt’s fictionalized plotting leading up to the ultimate coup d’etat and massacre of African Americans in Wilmington, NC.

After completing the novel, we returned to this assignment to compare the newspapers’ accounts with Chesnutt’s. We picked through history a bit more, keeping in mind some of the arguments put forth by the white supremacists characters in The Marrow of Tradition. A student eventually stumbled upon a revised news article that, like Chesnutt’s novel, was in opposition to those article published at the time of the event. When I initially taught this course, there were only one or two articles online that corrected the initial racist “race riot” narrative of the events of 1898 in Wilmington, NC, and those articles were all from the 2000s, over a century later. There have been a few more articles that have come out since I taught the course, but they are all roughly of the same revised account.

Showing students that it took over 100 years for the events to be acknowledged by mainstream media as a coup d’etat and massacre of African Americans, not a race riot where white Americans were the victims had the biggest impact on students the entire semester. It made them much more critical and aware of the manipulation of information. It also gave them a different appreciation of literature and one of its uses.

Note: My students and I discussed everything Railton addresses in his The Marrow of Tradition chapter in History and Hope in American Literature. If you are nervous to confront the political in your classroom, start there for some specific breakdowns of the text.