Food and Material Culture in the Classroom

Today, we’ll explore an easy way of incorporating food and material culture in the classroom. I’ll be using a specific case study from my recent What the Founders Read course. Blending food and material culture together provides students a way of considering the global economy during the eighteenth century. Thinking about food and material culture together provides a way of demonstrating how slavery touched many of life’s aspects. This approach is especially useful when the pieces we read don’t specifically mention slavery.

The inspiration for this post comes from a chocolate-drinking Snake.

Sheridan
Portrait of Sheridan at The Frick Pittsburgh

When first entering the world of Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s The School for Scandal, readers meet Lady Sneerwell and Snake. Snake is a dubious character that supplies periodicals with scandalous rumor-mongering “paragraphs.” At the start of the play, Sheridan provides a rather curious stage direction: Lady Sneerwell at the dressing-table, Snake drinking chocolate. It is an oddly specific detail in a play that includes few details about its staging. When I reread the line describing Snake as drinking chocolate, I recognized a moment in the text where students could think beyond what is happening on stage. They could use this space in the text to engage with the economy of the Atlantic World and slavery. Additionally, considering this brief line would invite students to think about how plays might be staged. What sorts of decisions might a director make in order to capture the world of the play?

In a previous post I wrote about the problems of my What the Founders Read course. In my original post I detailed how I made choices driven by ensuring that the class would make and that the class would receive approval as a cross-listed course. Over the long-term, I wanted to introduce students to complex issues regarding Founders Chic, marginalized voices in the history of the United States, and the topic of slavery. I could not jump into all these topics right away because I needed to build an incremental narrative. However, surveying students early in the semester revealed that there was dissatisfaction with how the course was progressing and telling some of these narratives. As the creator of the class I had the benefit of knowing what I was thinking and I could see the long game I was planning. Still, I needed ways to foreground aspects of the class that touched on slavery. The opening anecdote of Snake drinking chocolate provided a way of thinking about the ramifications of a global economy and slavery.

book cover.jpg

I wanted to use the opening of The School for Scandal to invite students to consider drinking chocolate and the accoutrements one would need in a play— or in real life— to enjoy their chocolate. I asked students to think about drinking chocolate and its ingredients. I explained what this particular chocolate drink was like, and then I asked them to think about the possible ingredients. Once they came up with ideas I shared with them the drinking chocolate recipe from Walter Staib’s A Sweet Taste of History. I shared with students the ingredients from Staib’s modernized version of eighteenth-century drinking chocolate. I drew their attention to chocolate, sugar, cinnamon, and vanilla. Next, I asked students to take some class time to research each of those ingredients and identify where they were sourced, specifically especially in the 18th century.

ingreds

Next, I drew a (very bad) map on the board. I marked ingredient sources on the map as students revealed them. The map provided a way for students to see the economy of the eighteenth century. As the map began to fill up, I identified how these ingredients were obtained, produced, sourced, and sold within this economy. It provided a way to draw attention to the fact that many of these ingredients were not possible without the systems of slavery.

table
Tea Table, The Met

Once we had a sense of what actually went into the recipe for drinking chocolate, I invited students to consider all of the objects that one would need in order to drink chocolate. We would need a cup one student said. Another added a pitcher. It was harder to tease out a table and chairs, but we did. By considering the objects needed to enjoy drinking chocolate students had a way to consider the role of material culture in the period we were studying and the play itself. I’d already defined material culture in a previous class as part of a quick introduction to book history. I spent some time explaining the role of mahogany in the production of furniture, along with its connections to slavery. To further illustrate these objects I shared with students images of silverware and furniture from the digital collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

my cookies

This unit sounds like I did a lot of leading. There was some leading with what I did. However, I did interject an element of excitement into the classroom because I served chocolate chip oatmeal cookies. In a perfect world, we’d have made drinking chocolate. Instead, we settled for cookies. The cookies allowed me to highlight similar ingredients found in drinking chocolate such as chocolate, sugar, and vanilla. I’m including the recipe I used here.

This is a very low stakes way of approaching the use of food and material culture in the classroom. I have not done a lot with food and recipes in my own classroom. In part, my approach was one of these responses of: what am I going to do in tomorrow’s class? And it was surprisingly easy for me to implement. The important thing is that our day with chocolate bore fruit for many students. It opened up new avenues of discussion. It provided students a way of thinking about the texts we read differently.

I’m not an expert on using food in the classroom. As I wrote and revised this post I decided to go with the language of teaching with food instead of recipes. The students in my class thought about ingredients, not necessarily the recipe itself. In closing, I’d like to direct your attention to resources on teaching with recipes in the classroom. On these sites you’ll find a lot of background, history, delicious recipes, and excellent resources for incorporating recipes and food in the classroom.

The Recipes Project

Cooking in the Archives

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Planning Native American Literature in the Beginnings to 1865 Survey of American Literature

I have always had issues with the canon and the periodization of literature. This in turn makes the struggle of what to include in the Early American literature survey course even more complicated. What does “Beginnings” actually mean? Sometimes the phrasing is “From First Contact” which I also wonder about. Depending on the anthology one chooses to use, or like me not use, those opening readings might belong to Native American tribes. Again, this brings up a variety of ethical issues from the writing down in English of Native American tribes’ stories to claiming them as apart of the American literary canon. There are plenty of places to read about these debates.

These issues are not my focus, but they do linger at the back of my mind when I design and redesign my American literature courses each time I teach them. PALS contributors have previously discussed different ways of framing both Native American writers and white American writers to challenge “misguided” dominant narratives, including ones that American literature anthologies continue to promote. For a variety of other approaches, see Randi Tanglen’s “Teaching Handsome Lake’s “How America Was Discovered” as Protest Literature” and “Misattribution and Repurposing the Captivity Trope: Teaching Louise Erdrich and Sherman Alexie with Mary Rowlandson’s The Sovereignty and Goodness of God,” Melissa Range’s “Teaching Jane Johnston Schoolcraft,” Elaina Frulla’s “History’s Inconsistent Characters,” and Corinna Cook’s “Bookending the Survey Course with Native American Literature – Part One: Oral Cultures” and “Bookending the Survey Course with Native American Literature-Part Two: Contemporary Texts and Authors.”

Part of my response is to daily frame literature prior to the American Revolution as British literature from the American colonies. I do not, however, include Native American literature within this. When designing my Early American Survey course for last fall semester, I decided to try a different positioning of Native American literature. I created an assignment for students to develop presentations in small groups that each featured a different Native American tribe.

The Logistics

First, I made two anthologies available on 2 hour reserve in the library: Dawnland Voices and The Literature of California, Volume 1: Native American Beginnings to 1945. I chose Dawnland Voices due to its self-representation from members of the tribes included in it, for more specifics about its creation and offerings see PALS’s “Anthology Spotlight: Dawnland Voices“ by Greg Specter and the anthology’s supplemental website. Conversely, I chose The Literature of California because I teach in California and wanted to provide my students the opportunity to connect with Native American experience in their region. The students who drew from the California anthology had to do more work in order to find background information for the tribes featured therein.

Second, I created space in the class for weekly presentations which generally ran 25-30 minutes because my students embraced the discussion portion of the presentations. I chose the weeks for each tribe to be placed on the syllabus and the tribes to include because there are more in those two anthologies than weeks in the semester. There are a few tribes in Dawnland Voices whose literature samples do not start until after the time period of the course, so those were cut from the mix first as I narrowed the field. Sometimes my choice was random, but other times it was more strategic. For instance, the week we read Mary Rowlandson’s captivity narrative, students presented on the Nipmuc whose writings in Dawnland Voices include “Mary Rowlandson’s Ransom Note.” Likewise, the week we read Phillis Wheatley’s Letter to Samsom Occom and Samsom Occom’s narrative, students presented on the Mohegan which provided additional writing by Occom. In these cases, the presentations enabled students to recontextualize and add more perspectives for interpreting the texts on the syllabus.

Finally, I had students choose their weeks which formed their groups. I also created google docs through our LMS system for them to create the required handout in. Google docs is a great way of keeping students accountable in group projects because it enables me to see their individual contributions; this is something students were aware of.

The Assignment

I broke the assignment up into four parts to help focus students with the material. Since I had access to their shared google doc, I printed the handouts an hour before class. They would have been more than capable of doing this on their own, but I had the access to keep that cost from my students.

1) The handout: This should be 1-2 pages in length, 12 point font, and single-spaced. You may include bullet points, but please use complete sentences. Your handout should include key concepts for understanding the specific tribe you are presenting on, including brief background information about who these people were/are.

2) An excerpt from their writings: In addition to information about the tribe, chose an excerpt from their writings to include on the handout as a sample of their work. [This usually added an addition 1-2 pages to the handouts, so we had the occasional 4 page handout.]

3) Presentation: Explain what stood out to you about the people and the excerpt from their writing that you chose to include on the handout.

4) Discussion questions: Develop  two open questions for us to explore as a class. A possible place to start is with connections that can be made between what is showing up in their writings and what we have been reading as a class.

The first group decided to include the tribal seal, so the rest of the class followed suit. It added a visual element for the group to explain to the class and created a genuine sense of respect by acknowledging the symbol of each tribes’ identity.

The Payoff

Sharing the history of 15 tribes across the semester, enabled students to develop an understanding of the intricate differences between Native American tribes, both from their individual experience and their literature. We were able to address a wide variety of issues from boarding schools to California water rights to forced migration. These additional pieces of information provided more complexities to the historical contexts of Early American literature without front loading it or trying to get through as much as possible in a few class periods.

Students took initiative to expand the perimeters of the presentations to include current information about the tribes. They were surprised to learn that many of the tribes were only officially recognized by the US government in the 1980s and 1990s and disenchanted when learning about those tribes that are still not recognized. They would also occasionally include a contemporary piece of writing alongside the one from our time period of study in order to

Ultimately, creating this separate space across the entire course to study Native American literature outside of the more canonical readings on the syllabus changed the way students saw American literature. The sustained presence of Native American literature throughout the entire semester kept American colonization as a focal point of the course and made students better able to check the ways white American writers presented themselves and the themes addressed in their literature.

One of the biggests challenges of the survey courses is how much we can adequately cover in a 15 week semester or 10 week quarter, yikes! Like I tell my students at the beginning of the semester and again at the end of the semester, “I could teach this same course next semester and not need to repeat a single text or author. There is always so much more to read.” Finding additional ways to effectively incorporate more literature (see also Randi Tanglen, “Student-Centered, Collaborative Learning and ‘Literature Circles’ in the American Literature Classroom”), especially when students are responsible for teaching it, enhances what we are able to do within the confines of one semester.